There are a variety of very different types of 3D printing technologies,
but they all share one core thing in common: they create a three dimensional object creating it layer by successive layer,
until the entire object is complete.
Each of these layers is a thinly sliced, horizontal cross-section of the
eventual object. Imagine a multi-layer cake, with the baker laying down each layer one at a time until the entire cake is
formed. 3D printing is similar, but just a bit more precise than 3D baking.
It Begins with a Digital File
3D-printed object begins with a digital Computer Aided Design (CAD) file, created with a 3D modeling program, or which was
scanned into a 3D modeling program with a 3D scanner. To get from this digital file into instructions that the 3D printer
understands, software then slices the design into hundred or thousands of horizontal layers.
The 3D printer reads
this file, and proceeds to create each layer exactly to specification. As the layers are created, they blend together with
no hint of the layering visible, resulting in one three dimensional object.
Off to the 3D Printer
The 3D printer could
be a Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) printer, somewhat similar to current 2D inkjet printers but with an additional axis,
which deposits droplets of melted material through a nozzle to form each layer. It could be a selective laser sintering (SLS)
printer, where the object is built up in a bed of powdered material by a scanning laser beam that fuses bits of the powder
together, again, one layer at a time. Or it could be one of several other technologies.
3D printing is also
called “additive manufacturing,” using an “additive process.” This is as opposed to what is called
a “subtractive process.” To explain the difference, imagine a sculptor chiseling a block of stone — he chips
away until he has the sculpture just as he wants it, and then throws out what’s been whittled away.
He began with block
of material and then subtracted from it. This is a subtractive process. In the manufacturing world, this is analogous to material
being cut, drilled, milled or machined off. But in additive manufacturing, the 3D printer doesn’t take anything away
— it simply creates each bit of the object where it needs it, layer by layer, successively, in an additive process.
While most people have yet to even hear the term 3D printing, the process has been in use for decades. Manufacturers
have long used the printers in the design process, to create prototypes for traditional manufacturing. But until the last
few years, the equipment has been expensive and slow.
Now, fast 3D printers can be had for tens of thousands of dollars,
and end up saving the companies many times that amount in the prototyping process. For example, Nike uses 3D printers to create
multi-colored prototypes of shoes. They used to spend thousands of dollars on a prototype and wait weeks for it. Now, the
cost is only in the hundreds of dollars, and changes can be made instantly on the computer and the prototype reprinted on
the same day.
Some companies are using 3D printers for short run or custom manufacturing, where the printed objects are not prototypes,
but the actual end user product. As the speeds of 3D printing go up and their price comes down, look for more and more of
this. And expect more availability of personally customized products.
Personal 3D Printers
Huxley RepRap 3D printer that has printed out its own parts.
So far we’ve only talked about commercial
3D printers. There is a whole other world of 3D printers: personal and DIY hobbyist models. And they are getting cheap, with
prices typically in the range of $300 – $2,000.
The RepRap open source project really ignited this hobbyist market
in the same way the Apple I microcomputer ignited the hobbyist desktop computer market in the late 1970s. For about a thousand
dollars, people have been able to buy the RepRap kit and put together their own personal 3D printer, complete with any customizations
they were capable of making. And what’s more, these printers print most of the parts for more printers. Complete self-replication,
including electronic circuit boards, is the goal.
The interest in RepRap spawned scores of other low-cost 3D printers,
both DIY and fully-assembled, and as the prices keep coming down, it puts 3D printers into more and more and more hands.
do you have to be an engineer or a 3D modeling expert to create 3D models on your own 3D printer? No, not at all. While complex
and expensive CAD software like AutoCAD and Solidworks have a steep learning curve, there are a number of other programs,
many free, that are very easy to learn. The free version of Google SketchUp, for example, is very popular for its ease of
use; and the free Blender program is popular for its advanced features.
If you don’t have your very own 3D
printer, not to worry, there are 3D printing service bureaus like Shapeways and Ponoko that can very inexpensively print and
deliver an object from a digital file that you simply upload to their user-friendly website. It’s almost as easy as
ordering a custom t-shirt from Cafepress or Zazzle.
Even if you don’t design your own 3D model, you can still
print some very cool pieces. There are model repositories such as Thingiverse, 3D Parts Database and 3D Warehouse that have
model files you can download for free.
What do all these people print? It’s limitless. Some print things
like jewelry, some print replacement parts for appliances such as their dishwasher, some invent all sorts of original things,
some create art, and some make toys for their kids. With the many types of metal, plastic, glass and other materials available
(even gold and silver), just about anything can be printed.
3D Systems explains the process of Stereolithography
The first commercially
available 3D printer (not called a 3D printer back then) used the stereolithography (SLA) method. This was invented in 1986
by Charles Hull, who also at the time founded the company, 3D Systems. A SLA 3D printer works by concentrating a beam of ultraviolet
light focused onto the surface of a vat filled with liquid photocurable photopolymer (resin). The UV laser beam draws out
the 3D model one thin layer at a time, hardening that “slice” of the eventual 3D model as the light hits the resin.
Slice after slice is created, with each one bonded to the other, and next thing you know you have a full, extremely high-resolution
three dimensional model lifted out of the vat. Unused resin is reusable for the next job.
Fused Deposition Modeling
Also invented in the late 1980′s, by Scott Crump, was Fused Deposition
Modeling (FDM) technology. With patent in hand, he and his wife founded Stratasys in 1988. With FDM, the object is produced
by extruding small beads of melted thermoplastic material to form layers as the material hardens immediately after it leaves
the extrusion nozzle. It is one of the lesser expensive 3D printing methods. Most FDM printers print with ABS plastic (think
Lego), as well as PLA (Polylactic acid), a biodegradable polymer, which is produced from organic material.
The actual term
“Fused Deposition Modeling” and its abbreviation “FDM” are trademarked by Stratasys. RepRap uses a
similar process, but has called it “Fused Filament Fabrication” (FFF), so as to not step on the trademark. With
FFF, the material is fed via filament from a spool of the material.
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
were big for inventing 3D printing technologies.
Not only were SLA and FDM invented and patented then, but so was Selective
Laser Sintering (SLS), by Carl Deckard and colleagues at the University of Texas in Austin.
SLS works similarly
to SLA, but instead of liquid photopolymer in a vat, you’ll find powered materials, such as polystyrene, ceramics, glass,
nylon, and metals including steel, titanium, aluminum and silver.
When the laser hits on the powder, it is fused
at that point (sintered). All unsintered powder remains as is, and becomes a support structure for the object. The lack of
necessity for any support structure with SLS is an advantage over SLS over SLA — none to remove after the model is complete,
and no extra waste was created. All unused powder can be used for the next printing. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
There are other variants
of these technologies. For example there is Selective Laser Melting (SLM), which is like SLS but fully melts the power rather
than just fusing the powder granules under lower temperature. This is similar to Electron Beam Melting (EBM) which is uses
an electron beam instead of a UV laser. And then there is a completely different technology called Laminated Object Manufacturing
(LOM), where layers of adhesive-coated paper, plastic, or metal laminates are successively glued together and cut to shape
with a knife or laser cutter.
3D Printing is a Game Changer
Instantly printing parts and entire products, anywhere in the world, is a game changer. But it doesn’t stop
there. 3D printing will affect almost every aspect of industry and our personal lives.
Medicine will forever be changed as new bioprinters actually print
human tissue for both pharmaceutical testing and eventually entire organs and bones.
Architecture and construction are changing as well. Now, 3D-printed
models of complex architectural drawings are created quickly and inexpensively, rather than the expensive and time-consuming
process of handcrafting models out of cardboard. And experimental, massive 3D printers are printing concrete structures, with
the goal of someday building entire buildings with a 3D printer.
Art is already forever changed. Digital artists are creating magnificent
pieces that seem almost impossible to have been made by traditional methods. From sculptures to light fixtures, beautiful
objects no longer need to be handcrafted, just designed on a computer.
And there are developments where you least expect them: for example,
archeologists can 3D scan priceless and delicate artifacts, and then print copies of them so they can handle them without
fear of breakage. Replicas can be easily made and distributed to other research facilities or museums. It has been used to
create a full-size reproduction of King Tutankhamun’s mummy and to repair Rodin’s sculpture, The Thinker.
The Future of 3D Printing
This is a disruptive
technology of mammoth proportions, with effects on energy use, waste, customization, product availability, art, medicine,
construction, the sciences and of course manufacturing. It will change the world as we know it. Before you know it.
at the point where, between the geolocation capability of the phone and the power of the phone's browser platform, it is possible
to deliver personalized information about where you are, what you could do there right now, and so forth—and to deliver
such a service at scale.
to realize that vision, Google needs to do some serious spadework on three fronts. First, we must focus on developing
the underlying fast networks (generally called LTE). These will be 8-to-10-megabit networks, roughly 10 times what
we have today, which will usher in new and creative applications, mostly entertainment and social, for these phone platforms.
Second, we must attend to the development
of mobile money. Phones, as we know, are used as banks in many poorer parts of the world—and modern technology means
that their use as financial tools can go much further than that.
Third, we want to increase the availability of inexpensive smartphones in the poorest parts
of the world. We envision literally a billion people getting inexpensive, browser-based touchscreen phones over the next few
years. Can you imagine how this will change their awareness of local and global information and their notion of education?
And that will be just the start.
Clear-Cloud.com is a Mobile Device Broker reseller and Trainer Channel. Mobile professional
buyers can source commercial surplus inventory (i.e, Enterprise-Corporate Off-Loads) and government surplus assets in
an online environment. Bulk lots are sold by the truckload, pallet, or small package, and conditions range from new in a box
to customer returns and used. Our wide variety of product categories includes Smartphones, Laptops, Tablet PCs, Netbooks,
eReaders, mobile Hotspot devices, and more. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Keeping supply chains
clear by Mobile Devices Liquidation Channels
New high-tech devices are always in demand by consumers. Electronic companies
are competing to have the latest technology included in their computers, tablets or mobile devices.
look to upgrade, they often seek a solution for getting rid of their old devices. To improve customer services, chain stores
can offer to recycle the unwanted items, e-waste recycling.
However, this can place additional strain on supply chains. The outdated computers need to be transported and stored until
they can be dismantled and recycled.
Instead of recycling the parts of the devices, companies can create alternative
revenue by selling the unwanted electronics through liquidation channels.
Clear-Cloud.com is a large reseller in this manner.
Mobile Device Brokers will often purchase
used Enterprise-Corporate smartphones or laptops, update them, clean them and resell them at reduced prices, as the old merchandise
still has value to consumers looking for a bargain. Liquidating electronics
and other unwanted goods can help keep inventory clear and streamline the company's distribution network.
Many Mobile Device Brokers make very decent income this way.
often choose retailers that will take old devices because of simplicity and convenience. Thousands of electronic units are
recycled every month as customers look to upgrade their devices. Firms that liquidate the merchandise may be able to improve
their overall profit margins. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
"Clear-Cloud.com has been my primary source of income for the last six years and I enjoy having my own business.
I have purchased pallets from Clear-Cloud.com and have made a profit of about 500% on my original investment. I continue to
check Clear-Cloud.com daily for good deals." – Terry L.
"I always wanted to work for myself but the time was never right. I found Clear-Cloud.com and Amazon, and
I have not slowed down yet. I will continue to buy here and make nice weekly money." – Peter Y.
"Clear-Cloud.com has allowed me to become very successful with such a varied lot of
Mobile Computing Devices to choose from. – Susan M." +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Venture capitalists John Doerr and Ted Schlein of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers have had a front-row seat at Silicon Valley's recent Web
froth and its fallout.
firm in the past decade made a big bet on clean technology. In the last couple of years, Kleiner has also put money into high-profile
and fast-growing digital startups, but only after they were valued at $1 billion or more—a far cry from the firm's traditional
strategy of investing very early in young companies.
Some of those more recent investments—in companies such as messaging service Twitter
Inc., mobile-payments service Square Inc. and music service Spotify AB—have at least doubled in value based on their
last private funding rounds.
Ted Schlein, left, and John Doerr of Kleiner
Perkins Caufield & Byers, at the venture-capital company's office in Menlo Park.
Kleiner also invested relatively late in
daily-deals site Groupon Inc. GRPN-2.61% and in social network Facebook Inc., FB-1.08% whose stocks have disappointed
since their initial public offerings.
In recent months, particularly since Facebook's May IPO, Silicon Valley has been grappling with a less-heady startup
investment environment. Still, Mr. Doerr, 61 years old, and Mr. Schlein, 48, say they remain confident that the mobile-device
revolution will catapult more startups to greater heights.
The two investors recently sat down at their Sand Hill Road offices in Menlo
Park to discuss Kleiner's investments in tech and clean tech, as well as their thoughts on the "four horsemen" of
Why did you pay such high prices to get into Twitter, Square, Spotify and others?
If you're working with great entrepreneurs in a rapidly growing marketplace, you have a conviction to work with them and you
can be rewarded all along the way. Every one of those investments is leveraging the trends of mobile, social and commerce.
These aren't waves of innovation; they're tsunamis.
WSJ: Given such investments, do you
think you have retained your identity as a company-builder?
Mr. Schlein: The vast majority of
what we do is 'series A' [early-stage company] investing. It's the core of what Kleiner Perkins has always been about.
Doerr: In the digital sector we have [magazine app] Flipboard, Chegg, the world's best textbook-renting company;
and Coursera [offering college-level courses online], which is five months old but already has two million students. Path
[a social networking mobile app] is another very successful company.
WSJ: Is the sharp rise in the value
of private tech companies sustainable for investors?
Mr. Doerr: What we're experiencing
right now is not different from the very early days of the Internet when there were huge winners who more than made up for
the losers, and that's happening right now in mobile.
Mr. Schlein: There's a lot of talk
about how there are too many angel investors [who invest small amounts in very young companies]….But the main event
is that we have 1.2 billion people with smartphones, and that's up 40% year over year and that's still just 17% of the world's
WSJ: There's much talk about competition among tech's "four horsemen" of today—Google, GOOG-0.13%
Apple, Facebook and Amazon. How do you view these companies and the way they are expanding into each other's turf? (Mr. Doerr
sits on the board of Google and two other Kleiner partners are board directors at Apple and Amazon.)
Today, these two products at Apple [holds up an iPhone and an iPad mini] that didn't exist a few years ago are now $100 billion
a year of very profitable revenue. That has never happened in any industry in any economy in any planetary system we know
The best is yet to come. This is day zero. Apple is not done, Facebook is not done, Google is not done, and Amazon
is not done. Those companies have massive opportunity. I would be a long-term shareholder of all of them—and I am.
you still have the conviction that your clean tech bets from the past decade will pay off?
Doerr: We're very committed to green and the numbers are showing how that pays off. In 2011, $1.3 billion was the
cumulative revenue of all of Kleiner's clean-tech portfolio [comprising about 70 companies, with more than half not publicly
launched]. Do you know how much it was this year? $2.4 billion—that's up 80% year over year.
The biggest single trend
is urbanization, people moving from rural to urban areas. And if they urbanize the way we did—they can't, the planet
can't afford it. Our green investing doesn't depend on government policies. It's about basic supply and demand.
WSJ: When will U.S. policies restricting
the number of foreign entrepreneurs and computer scientists who can come to this country start to hurt us?
That takes decades, but if we think we own the right to innovate, we're just wrong. We're doing everything we can to export
that when we should be doing everything we can to embrace it. Can you believe there's a cap on H1-B visas [to hire foreign
workers]? Innovation is a strategic weapon around national security, our economy, job creation, and I don't believe we do
enough in this area. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
We are now accepting new Mobile Device Brokers (USA based only) if interested,contact
us at email@example.com
Below is a small list
of our large inventory of off-loaded Enterprise-Corporate like new Mobile Devices.
These units are "Like New"
- Fully tested and functional, with no cosmetic or display defects. Excellent condition all around.
These units have very light scratches and minor cosmetic blemishes. These are fully tested and functional,
with no display defects.
Moderate Use (C)
These units have some very small scratches
or scuffs. These are fully tested and functional units with no display defects.
4GB 7” capacitive multi-touch touchscreen Tablet Android 4.0 camera,
3G New Min order 44 Price per unit $110.00 Off-loaded to
Enterprise-Corporate liquidation channels. Original acquisition was 334 units. Now 77 left. If interested email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or call 1-661-670-6092. Min order
is 44 Tablets. Prior Enterprise owner was Allstate Insurance, Chicago, Il....USA only, NO foreign orders accepted.
Like New - 8GB 7" capacitive
touchscreen Tablet Android 4.0 webcam, 3G Min order 97 units, $46.75 per Tablet Prior owner of lot was Farmers Insurance San Francisco, Ca. A very
popular Tablet...an easy sell on your website, or, locally via swap meets. Original acquisition was 884 units. Now 122
left. If interested email us at email@example.com or call 1-661-670-6092. Min order
is 97 Tablets. Prior Enterprise owner was Farmers Insurance, Austin, Texas....USA only, NO foreign orders accepted.
Verizon Mobile hotspot; Corporate-Enterprise
Off-load, Frys Computers Inc (prior lot owner was Frys.com, USA) 368 units left; min order 211 units, $9.22 each. An excellent
choice....sell locally or on your blog or website...make an easy $35 per to $55 per sale....very popular with businesses and
consumers. Original acquisition was 1,274 units. Now 368 left. If interested email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or call 1-661-670-6092. Min order
is 211 Verizon Mobile Hotspots. Prior Enterprise owner was Frys.com Woodland Hills, Ca....USA only, NO foreign orders accepted. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Panasonic 3D Blu-ray player
Semi New - Min order 197 units, $23.75 per Blu-ray player Prior owner of lot was Pacific Premier, LA Ca. A very popular Blu-ray player...an easy sell on your website, blog, or, locally via swap meets. Original acquisition was 884 units. Now
277 left. If interested email us at email@example.com or call 1-661-670-6092. Min order is 197 Blu-ray players. USA only, NO foreign orders accepted. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ C Grade Dell Laptops original MSRP $2106
SEE IMAGE BELOW
Original Enterprise owner of this lot was 3M Corporation, Dallas Texas Lot acquisition was 3,345 units....min order is 53 Laptops.....$113.55 each. C Grade Dell Laptops original MSRP $2106 Corporate-Enterprise Off-load, 3M Corporation,
Dallas Texas (prior lot owner
was 3M Corporation, Dallas Texas USA) 211 units left; min order 117 units, $113.55 each. An excellent choice....sell locally
or on your blog or website...make an easy $255 per sale....very popular with businesses and consumers. Original acquisition was 3345 units. Now 211 left. If interested email
us at firstname.lastname@example.org or call 1-661-670-6092. Min order is 53 C Grade Dell Laptops. Prior Enterprise owner was 3M corpotation Dallas Texas....USA only, NO
foreign orders accepted. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
see that the era of the Desktop PC is history.......skeptical? Well just “google” terms like “New Mobile
Cloud Revolution,” or, “death of the Desktop PC”.....yes, it’s true....the Mobile Cloud Computing
Revolution is here....now.
The trends in Mobile Cloud Computing are being advanced so fast that there is a HUGE multi-billion
“undergroud” economy happening now....we will show you (once you're signed-uphttp://clear-cloud.com/enroll.html) how to “pull in” over $2000 weekly
in profits....by selling, at a very nice margin, the semi-new Mobile Devices you’ve acquired via the Corporate-Enterprise
Mobile Device Off-load channels....it’s fun, easy too....contact us at email@example.com
See how Ted makes $150,000 a year as a Mobile Device Broker.....he, as a Mobile Device Broker acquires the semi-new
Enterprise-Corporate Mobile Devices (Tablets, Smartphones, Netbooks, Laptops, Kindles, and others) from the Enterprise-Corporate
Off-Loads, at prices literally “pennies on the dollar” and then Ted sells the valuable in-demand devices in the
multi-billion dollar USA “underground economy (totally legal too!) at very handsome profits. He usually makes around
$75 to $125 per sale. You can do so too....contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
to speak to a seasoned Mobile Device Broker ( see the "Ted" links below)
What You Get When
You Enroll In the Clear-Cloud How To Be
A Mobile Device Broker Program
Up to date training in latest techniques for success in the HUGE market of reselling Enterprise-Corporate semi-new valuable Mobile Devices. Such as Notebooks,
Netbooks, Smartphones, Android Tablets, Mobile Hotspots, and more.
Your own personal Mobile Device Broker Instructor-Mentor. He will guide you each
step of the way - from how-when to acquire the Enterprise-Corporate Mobile Device Off-Loads....then, how to effectively sell
them on your Blog and, or your Website. Your Broker Mentor-Instructor will also show you how-when to commence your participation
in the $7.7 Billion Dollar “USA Underground Economy.” What’s that mean ? you ask....well, it’s 100%
legal! It means selling the Mobile Devices you’ve acquired at local and regional SWAP MEETS. It is huge, and easy and fun too! Your Instructor will guide you through every step.
As a Registered Mobile Device Broker
you gain the ability to acquire the semi-new, in demand Mobile Devices from us (Clear-Cloud.com) or via the many powerful,
trusted Web Sites that carry the Enterprise-Corporate Mobile Device Liquidation Off-Loads. At prices literally “pennies
on the dollar.” Then you’ll sell each Mobile Device you’ve acquired at VERY handsome profits.
We at Clear-Cloud will also help you to “spruce up” your Blog and-or Web Site....to announce
to the world, effectively, your Status as a Registered and Professional Mobile Device Broker.
Yes, you CAN fairly easily make around
$2000 to $5000 weekly doing this.