FREE MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING CONCEPTS - TRAINING_MODULES_WITH_TONS_OF_VIDEOS
by Larry Powers II with Silicon Valley Core Group, LLC
Finally, the semiconductor industry is catching up with Intel.
Now, any chip designer can use transistors with high-k metal gates, which enable higher clock speeds and lower power consumption.
It’s the biggest advance in transistor technology in 50 years.
Intel announced high-k metal-gate (HKMG) transistors in 2003 and
introduced them in 2007 with 45nm Penryn processors. AMD wanted 45nm HKMG, too, but couldn’t pull it off. The first
AMD chip with HKMG is the Llano Fusion processor, an integrated CPU/GPU. Llano is manufactured in a 32nm process and is finally
hitting the market this year.
Now the wait is over. Independent chip foundries like GlobalFoundries (the AMD spin-off)
and Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Corp. (TSMC) are rolling out their 28nm HKMG processes this year. Any chip designers
willing to pay the price can use HKMG transistors in their new designs. Test chips and engineering samples are looking good,
so volume production will ramp up next year. The improved transistors will appear in some consumer products you’ll buy
of those products will advertise HKMG, but the benefits will be higher performance and greater power efficiency. It’s
coming in time for the next wave of smartphones, tablets, and other mobile electronics.
The “k” in high-k is the
dielectric constant, a measure of electrical capacitance. The “gate” determines if the transistor passes current
or not. Since the 1960s, transistor gates have been made of silicon materials. As transistors keep shrinking with each generation
of fabrication technology, the gates keep getting thinner. Now they’re so thin (only four atoms, in some cases) that
they’re leaking too much current.
exotic metallic materials for the silicon increases the gate’s capacitance, so it’s less leaky. Higher capacitance
also permits higher drive currents, which allow higher clock frequencies.
The entire semiconductor industry now turns on such
microscopic differences.....to the cloud let 'er go.....